People have witnessed supernovae for millennia, but what threat do they pose to life on Earth? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. You can get started for free, or the first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.
▀▀▀ A massive thanks to Prof. HansThomas Janka for helping us with the physics of supernovae and GRBs. A massive thanks to Prof. Brian Thomas for all of his help with the terrestrial effects of supernovae and GRBs. This video would not have been possible without them. Also thanks to Dr. Luke Barnes for his initial help with the literature search.
Hydrogen bomb vs Supernova fact was taken from this great article by xkcd/Randall Munroe – https://whatif.xkcd.com/73/ (based on the calculation by Andrew Karam, 2002)
Cosmic bubble footage from https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/1000...
Neutrino driven SN explosion simulations from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10...
Melott, A. et al. (2019). Hypothesis: Muon radiation dose and marine megafaunal extinction at the EndPliocene supernova. Astrobiology, 19(6), 825830. – https://ve42.co/Melott1
Thomas, B. C. et al. (2016). Terrestrial effects of nearby supernovae in the early Pleistocene. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 826(1), L3 – https://ve42.co/Thomas1
Melott, A. L., & Thomas, B. C. (2019). From cosmic explosions to terrestrial fires?. The Journal of Geology, 127(4), 475481. – https://ve42.co/Melott2
Fields, B. et al. (2019). NearEarth supernova explosions: Evidence, implications, and opportunities. arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.04589. – https://ve42.co/Fields1
Thomas, B. C., Atri, D., & Melott, A. L. (2021). Gammaray bursts: not so much deadlier than we thought. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 500(2), 19701973. – https://ve42.co/Thomas2
Melott, A. et al. (2004). Did a gammaray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction?. International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1), 5561. – https://ve42.co/Melott3
Firestone, R. B. (2014). Observation of 23 supernovae that exploded less than 300 pc from Earth during the past 300 kyr. The Astrophysical Journal, 789(1), 29. – https://ve42.co/firestone1
Janka, H. T. (2017). Neutrino emission from supernovae. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.08713. – https://ve42.co/Janka1
Janka, H. T., & Hillebrandt, W. (1989). Neutrino emission from type II supernovaean analysis of the spectra. Astronomy and astrophysics, 224, 4956. – https://ve42.co/Janka2
Karam, P. A. (2002). Gamma and neutrino radiation dose from gamma ray bursts and nearby supernovae. Health physics, 82(4), 491499. – https://ve42.co/Karam1
Melott, A. L., Thomas, et al.. (2017). A supernova at 50 pc: effects on the Earth's atmosphere and biota. The Astrophysical Journal, 840(2), 105. – https://ve42.co/Melott4
Ludwig, P., et al. (2016). Timeresolved 2millionyearold supernova activity discovered in Earth’s microfossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(33), 92329237. – https://ve42.co/Ludwig1
Gritschneder, et al. (2011). The supernova triggered formation and enrichment of our solar system. The Astrophysical Journal, 745(1), 22. – https://ve42.co/Gritschneder1
Motizuki, Y., Takahashi, et al. (2009). An Antarctic ice core recording both supernovae and solar cycles. arXiv preprint arXiv:0902.3446. – https://ve42.co/Motizuki
Zucker, C. et al. (2022). Star formation near the Sun is driven by expansion of the Local Bubble. Nature, 601(7893), 334337. – https://ve42.co/Zucker1
Hayes, L. A., & Gallagher, P. T. (2022). A Significant Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance Associated with GammaRay Burst GRB 221009A. Research Notes of the AAS, 6(10), 222.
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▀▀▀ Written by Petr Lebedev & Derek Muller Edited by Fabio Albertelli Animation by Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek, Alex Drakoulis, Ivy Tello, Mike Radjabov, and Charlie Davies Filmed by Derek Muller Additional Research by Kovi Rose & Katie Barnshaw Video/photos supplied by NASA, ESA, Pond5, and Getty Images Music from Epidemic Sound & Jonny Hyman Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang