The Collatz Conjecture is the simplest math problem no one can solve — it is easy enough for almost anyone to understand but notoriously difficult to solve. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

Special thanks to Prof. Alex Kontorovich for introducing us to this topic, filming the interview, and consulting on the script and earlier drafts of this video.

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References:

Lagarias, J. C. (2006). The 3x+ 1 problem: An annotated bibliography, II (20002009). arXiv preprint math/0608208. — https://ve42.co/Lagarias2006

Lagarias, J. C. (2003). The 3x+ 1 problem: An annotated bibliography (1963–1999). The ultimate challenge: the 3x, 1, 267341. — https://ve42.co/Lagarias2003

Tao, T (2020). The Notorious Collatz Conjecture — https://ve42.co/Tao2020

A. Kontorovich and Y. Sinai, Structure Theorem for (d,g,h)Maps, Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, New Series 33(2), 2002, pp. 213224.

A. Kontorovich and S. Miller Benford's Law, values of Lfunctions and the 3x+1 Problem, Acta Arithmetica 120 (2005), 269297.

A. Kontorovich and J. Lagarias Stochastic Models for the 3x + 1 and 5x + 1 Problems, in "The Ultimate Challenge: The 3x+1 Problem," AMS 2010.

Tao, T. (2019). Almost all orbits of the Collatz map attain almost bounded values. arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.03562. — https://ve42.co/Tao2019

Conway, J. H. (1987). Fractran: A simple universal programming language for arithmetic. In Open problems in Communication and Computation (pp. 426). Springer, New York, NY. — https://ve42.co/Conway1987

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Alvaro Naranjo, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Written by Derek Muller, Alex Kontorovich and Petr Lebedev

Animation by Iván Tello, Jonny Hyman, Jesús Enrique Rascón and Mike Radjabov

Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang

Edited by Derek Muller

SFX by Shaun Clifford

Additional video supplied by Getty Images

Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

3d Coral by Vasilis Triantafyllou and Niklas Rosenstein — https://ve42.co/3DCoral

Coral visualisation by Algoritmarte — https://ve42.co/Coral

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